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Save previous choice in GRUB bootloader

Q. I would like GRUB to remember my last OS choice and make that the selected option on the next boot. How do I do that?

A. This example is for GRUB2 - for GRUB 1 the options are slightly different.

Boot into Linux and make a backup of the following file:

sudo cp /etc/default/grub /etc/default/grub.bak

Thursday, 28 June 2012 06:23

Special device UUID does not exist

hard-drive-iconQ. I'm trying to mount a drive using UUID, but I get the following error: 


mount: special device /dev/disk/by-uuid/87470c42-4b34-475c-86d0-bf0df06d4f3c does not exist


A. You've just created the new partition and the OS doesn't see it. You can either reboot or run the following command 

sudo partprobe

Wednesday, 09 May 2012 20:30

Convert SSL certificate from CRT format to PEM

Q. Ubuntu 8.04 is setup by default to accept PEM certificates instead of CRT, is there any way to convert it?

A. You can convert the SSL certificates using the following commands:

openssl x509 -in server.crt -out server.der -outform DER


openssl x509 -in server.der -inform DER -out server.pem -outform PEM

Tuesday, 08 May 2012 12:23

Measure disk I/O in Ubuntu

Q. I think I'm having disk I/O problems on my system. How do I check what it is or measure it?

A. First, you'll have to install some applications/tools:

apt-get install sysstat
apt-get install iotop

iotop command, much like top, will give you the real-time overview of your Read/Write requests. It's fun to look at, but we find useless for measuring I/O.

Monday, 30 April 2012 12:05

Enable Internet Explorer in Windows 2008 Server

internet explorer 9Q. How can I disable all those warning in Internet Explorer on my server and just the browser?

A. You have to disable Internet Explorer Enhanced Security Configuration (IE ESC).

1. To do that, go to Start -> Administrative Tools -> Server Manager

Tuesday, 17 April 2012 15:12

Change access permissions in command prompt

Q. Command-Prompt-iconI'm logged in as a non-privileged user and would like to change file permissions. How do I do that without logging out?

A. 1. First you have to open the command prompt as a privileged user. That can be found under Start -> "All Programs" -> Accessories. Right-click on the "Command prompt" icon and select "Run-As".

2. Once prompted, enter username and password.

3. On the command line, you can use a comman called CACLS. Here's the full list of things that it can do:

Thursday, 29 March 2012 07:02

Parsing Apache access log files using PHP

php-logoThis is a bit dated, but I still come back to it. A small script (using regex) that parses apache log files. The data breakdown required:

Server Date / Time [SPACE]
"GET /path/to/page
HTTP/Type Request"
Success Code
Bytes Sent To Client
Client Software

Friday, 24 February 2012 13:34

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